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history of Silk scren printing

Jumat, 04 Maret 2016



The term  silk screen  (serigrafia) etymologically composed of two roots: seri (from Greek: silk) and grafia (from Greek: the writing, the image). This means that the origin of the name refers to activities related to silk dressing or using it. According to tradition, screen printing originated in China, as well as all things that do not know and therefore include their origin in the distant misty country.
Silk screen printing (screen printing) existing hypotheses about the origin of the Chinese silk screen printing, based on the fact that the silk began to produce in this country for as much as 1,200 years BC. There is, however, evidence that can confirm with certainty. More likely, the silk-screen printing in this country was born, though, because silk was directly involved in the development of silk-screen printing at least 2400 years later.
Modern screen printing has almost nothing like the original technique of silk-screen printing.
According to the extant historical facts silkscreen may have originated near the Mediterranean Sea, more specifically, in the area between Mesopotamia and Phoenicia. Many coincidences suggest that the keepers of screen printing, which at that time was seen as art, were the Phoenicians.
This small Semitic people living on a narrow strip of land, in Phoenicia, located approximately on the territory of modern Lebanon in the eastern Mediterranean, lived between XIII and III centuries BC and was one of the great navigators of antiquity. The Phoenicians went beyond the Strait of Gibraltar to the Canary Islands, and as far north as the UK. In addition, they sailed across the Mediterranean basin. The Phoenicians were engaged in trade and used their coastal cities as ports for export what they can get, not only as a result of their own production, as well as goods imported from quite distant lands.

Phoenicians extracted from the gland secretions of the mollusc purple - red substance for dyeing fabrics. Such a substance is comparable with the pigment, which were first used by the Phoenicians to dye their garments. Step of dyeing receivable repetitive stuffing was a high probability that they could use it to obtain a cheap industrial products sold on a broad scale.

Coating of fabrics was not handmade and rapidly repeated. But how could play Phoenicians repeated dyeing, when at the time there was no information about the equipment that could handle it? It would not be risky to assume that the Phoenicians on their trade routes came into contact with more distant civilizations, then has a more diverse and more complex production technologies.

Thus, we can assume that the Phoenicians or some neighboring them people have found a way to reproduce the drawings on the fabric, using a technology that, in common of course, nothing to have a modern, but represent the birth of 'copying system,' the system repetition image .

Based on the foregoing, it is necessary to consider the birth of silk-screen printing is not as an art derived from printing on fabrics - silk, or others, as well as the technology, based on the repetition of relatively simple patterns with the help of special matrices, 'dies' on which the paint by using tampons made of various materials.

It is impossible to think that the silkscreen immediately stepped to the frame, but one can assume a significant simplification of the process through the primitive printing with a 'stamp'.

Stamp, who had many disadvantages primarily due to lack of the pigment layer, especially when used on thick and absorbent tissue, has undergone significant and interesting improvements in the next century.
Very significant improvement method was as much as 18 centuries later - about 1185-1333 gg in the city of Kamakura, who was then the capital of Japan. In this city, in this period flourished all kinds of art, including printing: decorated by samurai armor and ornaments for horses. First, conventional screen printing method is used for this purpose. Then was invented ingenious innovation: as a reserve image obtained only by cutting the material does not stick together the whole picture, the image is cut out and pasted on a sort of grid of yarns made from human hair, stretched over a wooden frame. Thus, the image kept together in all its parts, and the presence of thin hair became imperceptible when the tampon soaked pigment pressed against the fabric to be decorated.

Numerous examples of Japanese stencils made from thin hair or silk, show how to silkscreen became more and more to take the characteristics inherent in this type of printing.

In Europe, the method of distribution, occurred mainly in England and France, where around 1750 Jean Patilon began producing wallpaper. Silk screen printing (screen printing)
In the second half of the XVIII century, this technology spreads around the world. And especially in America where via silkscreen method decorated furniture, walls, fabric, and metal products.

Cloth 'printing frame', are made from the hair before, were made of silk and muslin from, but it was the tissue with which it was very difficult to work with.

A big step forward came in 1907, when a certain Simon from Manchester has patented the process of screen printing through silk cloth, which guarantee a high resistance to tension, greater dimensional stability, and the use of rubber rollers (hereinafter rubber squeegee) for applying the paint. The invention has been cataloged under the name of SILK SCREEN PRINTING (Eng. = Printing silk sieve). Silk screen printing (screen printing)
Hence the name 'silkscreen' recently. The modern form of screen printing purchased in 30-50-ies of XX century. Since that time, by screen printing began to print substrates of any kind, from fabrics to posters, from postcards to stamps until the license plates for cars. However, in practice the purely commercial use of the printing process has led to the fact that the silk screen is not seen as a new incarnation of the graphics, like a printing process, and was in fact a subordinate position, forcing it to consider biased secondary method, a special kind of printing.

The spectrum of applications of this printing method is very wide, which is associated with the specific features of silk screen printing. Now the screen printing is applied not only in the printing industry, but also in the textile, electronics, automotive, glass, ceramic and other industries.

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