Jumat, 04 Maret 2016
Diposkan oleh Ronald Fagundes di 21.04
Silk screen printing (screen printing) existing hypotheses about the origin of the Chinese silk screen printing, based on the fact that the silk began to produce in this country for as much as 1,200 years BC. There is, however, evidence that can confirm with certainty. More likely, the silk-screen printing in this country was born, though, because silk was directly involved in the development of silk-screen printing at least 2400 years later.
Modern screen printing has almost nothing like the original technique of silk-screen printing.
According to the extant historical facts silkscreen may have originated near the Mediterranean Sea, more specifically, in the area between Mesopotamia and Phoenicia. Many coincidences suggest that the keepers of screen printing, which at that time was seen as art, were the Phoenicians.
This small Semitic people living on a narrow strip of land, in Phoenicia, located approximately on the territory of modern Lebanon in the eastern Mediterranean, lived between XIII and III centuries BC and was one of the great navigators of antiquity. The Phoenicians went beyond the Strait of Gibraltar to the Canary Islands, and as far north as the UK. In addition, they sailed across the Mediterranean basin. The Phoenicians were engaged in trade and used their coastal cities as ports for export what they can get, not only as a result of their own production, as well as goods imported from quite distant lands.
Phoenicians extracted from the gland secretions of the mollusc purple - red substance for dyeing fabrics. Such a substance is comparable with the pigment, which were first used by the Phoenicians to dye their garments. Step of dyeing receivable repetitive stuffing was a high probability that they could use it to obtain a cheap industrial products sold on a broad scale.
Coating of fabrics was not handmade and rapidly repeated. But how could play Phoenicians repeated dyeing, when at the time there was no information about the equipment that could handle it? It would not be risky to assume that the Phoenicians on their trade routes came into contact with more distant civilizations, then has a more diverse and more complex production technologies.
Thus, we can assume that the Phoenicians or some neighboring them people have found a way to reproduce the drawings on the fabric, using a technology that, in common of course, nothing to have a modern, but represent the birth of 'copying system,' the system repetition image .
Based on the foregoing, it is necessary to consider the birth of silk-screen printing is not as an art derived from printing on fabrics - silk, or others, as well as the technology, based on the repetition of relatively simple patterns with the help of special matrices, 'dies' on which the paint by using tampons made of various materials.
It is impossible to think that the silkscreen immediately stepped to the frame, but one can assume a significant simplification of the process through the primitive printing with a 'stamp'.
Stamp, who had many disadvantages primarily due to lack of the pigment layer, especially when used on thick and absorbent tissue, has undergone significant and interesting improvements in the next century.
Very significant improvement method was as much as 18 centuries later - about 1185-1333 gg in the city of Kamakura, who was then the capital of Japan. In this city, in this period flourished all kinds of art, including printing: decorated by samurai armor and ornaments for horses. First, conventional screen printing method is used for this purpose. Then was invented ingenious innovation: as a reserve image obtained only by cutting the material does not stick together the whole picture, the image is cut out and pasted on a sort of grid of yarns made from human hair, stretched over a wooden frame. Thus, the image kept together in all its parts, and the presence of thin hair became imperceptible when the tampon soaked pigment pressed against the fabric to be decorated.
Numerous examples of Japanese stencils made from thin hair or silk, show how to silkscreen became more and more to take the characteristics inherent in this type of printing.
In Europe, the method of distribution, occurred mainly in England and France, where around 1750 Jean Patilon began producing wallpaper. Silk screen printing (screen printing)
In the second half of the XVIII century, this technology spreads around the world. And especially in America where via silkscreen method decorated furniture, walls, fabric, and metal products.
Cloth 'printing frame', are made from the hair before, were made of silk and muslin from, but it was the tissue with which it was very difficult to work with.
A big step forward came in 1907, when a certain Simon from Manchester has patented the process of screen printing through silk cloth, which guarantee a high resistance to tension, greater dimensional stability, and the use of rubber rollers (hereinafter rubber squeegee) for applying the paint. The invention has been cataloged under the name of SILK SCREEN PRINTING (Eng. = Printing silk sieve). Silk screen printing (screen printing)
Hence the name 'silkscreen' recently. The modern form of screen printing purchased in 30-50-ies of XX century. Since that time, by screen printing began to print substrates of any kind, from fabrics to posters, from postcards to stamps until the license plates for cars. However, in practice the purely commercial use of the printing process has led to the fact that the silk screen is not seen as a new incarnation of the graphics, like a printing process, and was in fact a subordinate position, forcing it to consider biased secondary method, a special kind of printing.
The spectrum of applications of this printing method is very wide, which is associated with the specific features of silk screen printing. Now the screen printing is applied not only in the printing industry, but also in the textile, electronics, automotive, glass, ceramic and other industries.
Diposkan oleh Ronald Fagundes di 20.04
Kamis, 03 Maret 2016
image source http://kedai-madu.com
Honey - an ancient delicacy and a very useful product, and probably it is useful and its use can lead to some positive consequences for health. Also, many people simply do not know how to choose it, because its purchase is not engaged in too often. Most people buy honey 1-2 times a year. In this article we will answer the following questions: What are the benefits and harms of honey manifest? Does honey have harm to human health? As it is used in cosmetics? How to choose the right honey? How to store it? How to use it? whether there is a difference in the market of honey from the honey in the store? What is the most useful honey: lime, floral or buckwheat?
In Indonesia honey is called as madu . And the are many of online store that sell it. They sell honey with slogan jual madu asli murni tanpa campuran. It means that the honey is pure without mixing of additonal water or etc.
To begin with, we note that the substances contained in honey, which determine its favor. Thus, in honey contains vitamin B and vitamin C, minerals, potassium, iron, magnesium, sodium, calcium, sulfur, chlorine, fructose, glucose, protein (its amount varies depending on the type of honey). honey quality is very dependent on the pollen and nectar that bees collected for processing.
We proceed to the description of the 8 reasons for eating honey
1) due to the presence of specific substances honey exhibits antibacterial;
2) Honey has a lot of iron fructose;
3) Honey has a lot of iron;
4) helps with colds and viral diseases.
5) improve digestion;
6) improves the condition of the bones and teeth
7) is used as an aphrodisiac, increases the productivity of sperm cells.
8) strengthens the human immune system.
In addition to the use of honey can also have and harm on the human body. This applies particularly to people who are allergic to pollen. By this is not treated lightly, because use of honey can cause allergic pulmonary edema and even asphyxiation. So what if you never ate honey, you need to start it with the use of small portions of a few grams, over time, gradually increasing it, and at the same time monitor the condition of the body.
In cosmetology honey is used as a means of improving skin and hair. Because it makes a mask for the face, hands, and it is diluted in water and a water rinse hair. Honey nourishes the skin and gives a healthy look to skin and hair, hair and adds shine and silkiness.
When compared buckwheat honey, lime honey and flower on general indicators, it is possible to emphasize that:
- Most Buckwheat is rich in iron, are high in protein, it has a distinctive taste and quickly candy (crystallized);
- Lime honey stored initial consistency for a very long time and in comparison with floral and buckwheat are not candy long. It is most useful for colds due to beneficial properties of lime-tree;
- Flower honey crystallizes quickly, showing a positive effect on the cardiovascular and nervous systems, is used as a sedative, it is very useful for children and people under the age;
How to choose the honey?
Honey varies in color, but it should have a translucent appearance, should not be turbid and should not be precipitate, which may indicate the presence in it of extraneous additives. The smell of honey is to be rich, honey with added sugar such has no odor. It should have a uniform viscous consistency.
In summer, it is better not to buy candied honey, because it may be the last year, and you can not exactly know where and how it was kept for so long.
How to store honey?
Keep the honey should be in a glass container in a dark place of the reach of the light and the sun, the light and the sun can destroy some vitamins in it.
How to use honey?
Honey is best to use fresh unchanged. It is impossible to be heat treated honey at temperatures over 40 degrees, thus in turn it into useful substances harmful to the human body toxins. Very useful is considered warm milk with honey, this drink has a natural calming effect, is well absorbed, and also helps with colds, when the body just needs vitamins and liquid.
What honey is more useful: the market or in the shop?
The store often sell the processed honey. A process of treatment can affect the content of useful substances. Some unscrupulous manufacturers overheat the honey to give it a beautiful look. Select high-quality honey in industrial production possible for certain if his own health check in the laboratory.
But an ordinary beekeeper honey can also be of poor quality, it can contain additives or may be harmful for the reason that the pollen collected in an inappropriate places (eg, processed chemistry field). In this case, good honey, you can buy from a beekeeper, who can be trusted.
Let's make some conclusions: the use of honey is undoubtedly great, but it must be able to correctly select, store and eat, because the benefits and harms of honey are next for allergy sufferers. People who regularly eat honey, he gives good health, beauty and longevity.
Diposkan oleh Ronald Fagundes di 19.45